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酒的概念

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发表于 2006-10-28 19:28:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
<p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">1.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">定义<span lang="EN-US">:</span>凡是含有淀粉和糖分的原料经过发酵或蒸馏的工艺制成的酒精含量在<span lang="EN-US">0.5%-75.5%</span>之间的饮料称之为酒<span lang="EN-US">.</span>酒精的学名“乙醇”<span lang="EN-US">(Ethyl alcohol)</span>。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">2.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">物理性质<span lang="EN-US">:</span>在常温常压下为无色透明液体<span lang="EN-US">,</span>易燃、易挥发<span lang="EN-US">,</span>可以与水无限混溶<span lang="EN-US">.</span>标准状态下<span lang="EN-US">,</span>乙醇的沸点为<span lang="EN-US">78.3</span>度<span lang="EN-US">,</span>冰点为<span lang="EN-US">-114</span>度<span lang="EN-US">.<p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">3.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">酿酒原理<span lang="EN-US">:</span>(<span lang="EN-US">1</span>)酒化原理<span lang="EN-US">:</span>酒精的形成需具有一定的物质条件和催化条件<span lang="EN-US">,</span>糖分<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 120pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 10.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">是酒精发酵最重要的物质条件<span lang="EN-US">,</span>酶是必不可少的催化剂<span lang="EN-US">.</span>在酶的<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 120pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 10.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">作用下<span lang="EN-US">,</span>单糖被分解成酒精<span lang="EN-US">,</span>二氧化碳和其他物质<span lang="EN-US">.</span>理论上<chmetcnv wst="on" unitname="克" sourcevalue="100" hasspace="False" negative="False" numbertype="1" tcsc="0"><span lang="EN-US">100</span>克</chmetcnv><span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 120pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 10.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">葡萄糖可生产<chmetcnv wst="on" unitname="千克" sourcevalue="51.1" hasspace="False" negative="False" numbertype="1" tcsc="0"><span lang="EN-US">51.1</span>千克</chmetcnv>酒精<span lang="EN-US">,</span>实际上比理论值低<span lang="EN-US">.<p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">(<span lang="EN-US">2</span>)糖化原理<span lang="EN-US">:</span>用于酿酒的材料不一定都含有糖分<span lang="EN-US">,</span>而酒精的产生又<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 120pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 10.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">离不开糖<span lang="EN-US">,</span>所以要进行一些处理<span lang="EN-US">,</span>淀粉很容易变成糖。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" align="center" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; TEXT-ALIGN: center; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">淀粉<span lang="EN-US">------</span>糊精<span lang="EN-US">-----</span>糖化齐<span lang="EN-US">(</span>液体曲、糖化酶<span lang="EN-US">)------</span>酵母<span lang="EN-US">-----</span>酒精<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">     </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">       </span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">蒸煮<span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">  </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">   </span></span>添加<span lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">     </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;">                 </span></span>添加<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 24pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">4</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">、酿酒工艺:(<span lang="EN-US">1</span>)发酵工艺(<span lang="EN-US">fermenting</span>)<span lang="EN-US">:</span>指含有淀粉或糖质的原料在酶的作<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt; TEXT-INDENT: 126pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 10.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">用下直接分解成酒精等。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 5.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">(<span lang="EN-US">2</span>)蒸馏工艺(<span lang="EN-US">distilling</span>)<span lang="EN-US">:</span>烈酒和高度酒都需蒸馏得到。根据<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">酒精的汽化原理。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 5.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">(<span lang="EN-US">3</span>)陈化工艺(<span lang="EN-US">aging</span>):蒸馏后的酒精放入橡木桶中陈化,使酒精<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">变得更成熟与芳醇,不同酒陈化时间不同,并不是陈化时间越<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">长质量越好。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 5.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">(<span lang="EN-US">4</span>)勾兑工艺(<span lang="EN-US">blending</span>)<span lang="EN-US">:</span>将不同地区或不同品种,也可以是不<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">同年份的酒液混合,也有将几种方法合并使用的。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 60pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 5.0; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">(<span lang="EN-US">5</span>)装瓶工艺(<span lang="EN-US">bottling</span>)<span lang="EN-US">:</span>最后一道工艺,应符合以下要求:<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">A</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">、严格符合卫生标准。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">B</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">、符合酒品的保存特点。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">C</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">、体现酒品独特的装饰风格和级别。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="MARGIN: 0cm 0cm 0pt 34.95pt; TEXT-INDENT: 90pt; LINE-HEIGHT: 14pt; mso-char-indent-count: 7.5; mso-line-height-rule: exactly; mso-para-margin-left: 3.33gd;"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 12pt; FONT-FAMILY: 新宋体; mso-bidi-font-family: 宋体;">、便于安全运输。<span lang="EN-US"><p></p></span></span></p>
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